Gum disease or Periodontal disease is a progressive inflammatory disease of the gingival and the surrounding tissue which is a cause for bone resorption and tooth decay.
Periodontal disease is the primary cause of tooth loss after the age of 30 and it is believed that around 80% of the population above the age of 30 may suffer from this disease, with varying degrees of severity.
The most common form of periodontal disease is:
Gingivitis. The first stage of periodontal disease, gingivitis, is the mild inflammation of the gingival caused by plaque.
Symptoms of Periodontal disease:
– Your gingival will be red, swollen, and tender.
– Bleeding while you brush and floss. Note: This stage of periodontitis is reversible.
Stages of the periodontal diseases:
Mild Periodontitis. Inflammation will spread to the supporting alveolar bone. Minor bone loss and the formation of periodontal pockets, or food traps, may occur.
Moderate Periodontitis. In this stage, there will be increased gingival recession, moderate to deep pockets, moderate to severebone loss, and mobility of teeth due to the bone loss.
Severe Periodontitis. This is the most serious stage of periodontitis.
Deep pockets, increased mobility of teeth.
Movement of teeth out of position.
Visible fistulas (boils) will be present in this stage.
Pus may develop
Bone loss continues
Your teeth may loosen or fall out.
Treatment will depend upon the type of periodontal disease and how far the condition has progressed.
- Non-Surgical Treatment.This is applicable if the patient is still in the early stages of periodontal disease.
2. Scaling or Cleaning. This procedure involves the instrumentation of the crown and root surfaces of the teeth. Plaque, calculus, and stains will be removed from these surfaces. It is performed on patients with periodontal disease and is therapeutic, as apposed to prophylactic and may need root planning. It is a definitive, meticulous treatment procedure aimed at the removal of cementum and/or dentin that is rough and is possibly permeated by calculus, or even contaminated with toxins or microorganisms. This procedure can be used as a definitive treatment or as part of pre-surgical therapy depending on how far the periodontal disease has advanced.
3. Bone or Gingival Augmentation. This is a surgical procedure which uses a barrier membrane and or bone grafting (artificial bone) under the gum and over the remaining bone support (ridge or jaw bone) to aid the regeneration of new bone in an area where teeth are being extracted or have already been removed. The graft material may be taken from the patient’s own body. If not, an artificial, synthetic, or natural substitute may be used. This prevents the surrounding bone from collapsing into the extraction socket after the removal of a tooth. If this procedure is not carried out, the ridge will become narrow and sharp and it will not be possible to insert an implant or a comfortable-fitting denture.
- Post-Op care.In most cases, the gums are too tender to brush post-operatively. We will provide you with an antibacterial mouth rinse called chlorhexidine which will chemically reach those areas that the tooth brush will be too sensitive to debride. Warm salt water will help to reduce gum inflammation and an antibiotic is usually prescribed to prevent infection. Analgesics(pain medication) can be used if the pain becomes severe.