Bone grafting

What is a bone graft?
Bone grafting is the replacement or augmentation of the bone around the teeth.
Why is a bone graft needed?
Bone grafting is performed to reverse the bone loss or destruction caused by periodontal disease, trauma, or ill fitting removable dentures. It is also used to augment bone to permit implant placement, such as augmenting bone in the sinus area for implant placement, or augmenting bone to enhance the fit and comfort of removable prostheses, or to enhance esthetics of a missing tooth site in the smile zone. When one loses a tooth, the surrounding bone collapses. To preserve this bone for future implant placement or for esthetics, a bone graft is used.
What are the types of bone graft?
1. autogenous – bone taken from one area of the patient and transplanted to another area requiring such grafting
2. allograft – bone from a bone bank: FFE( Fresh frozen bone), FDBA( Freeze-dried bone allograft)
3. xenograft – bovine /cow bone: Obtained from another species: BiOss, NuOss.
4. Alloplastic( synthetic bone): Calci phosphate, polymers: Four bone, bone bone,..
Which graft is used and when and why?
Autogenous bone is the “gold standard” and has the most predictable results. This is described as the best type of graft because such bone is live bone with live active cellular elements that enhance bone growth, whereas other types of grafts are devoid of any active cellular material.
Allografts and Xenografts both do not require a second surgical site. Ample amounts can be easily obtained.

Barrier membranes – Guided Tissue Regeneration
In conjunction with bone grafting, membranes are often used to help stabilize the bone graft as well as displace the gum tissue from invading the healing bone graft